Fossil hunters in Ethiopia are excavating a mandible, or lower jaw, of Ardipithecus ramidus. A fairly complete skeleton of this individual, nicknamed Ardi, is 4.4-million-years-old. It lived well before and was much more primitive than the 3.2-million-year-old Lucy skeleton, of the species Australopithecus afarensis. Unveiling the Ardi remains this week, scientists said this was the earliest known skeleton of a potential human ancestor.
Late-20th-century specialist drawing pens by Haff all with plain ebonite handles. the blades made of stainless steel with hardened tips. (Right to left) : Broad pen with numbered settings on a thumb-screw from 0.25- I.20 mm thick: a curve line pen for lines 0.1-0.35 mm thick: a twin road or rail pen: a small fine-line pen for lines 0.2- 0.8 mm thick
United States Patent Office, 3,179,089, Patented Apr. 20, 1965
The present invention relates to pencils and more particularly to mechanical pencils of the type used in engineering drafting.
In pencilling engineering drawings and the like, it is highly desirable to manually rotate the pencil while drawing a line to keep the pencil point sharp for a longer period of time. This practice of manually rotating the pencil in addition to reducing the frequency at which the pencil requires resharpening, provides clean-cut lines of uniform thickness to improve the appearance of the drawing.
Sketchpad, A Man-Machine Graphical Communication System
Ivan Edward Sutherland
The Sketchpad system uses drawing as a novel communication medium for a computer. The system contains input, output, and computation programs which enable it to interpret information drawn directly on a computer display. It has been used to draw electrical, mechanical, scientific, mathematical, and animated drawings; it is a general purpose system. Sketchpad has shown the most usefulness as an aid to the understanding of processes, such as the notion of linkages, which can be described with pictures. Sketchpad also makes it easy to draw highly repetitive or highly accurate drawings and to change drawings previously drawn with it. The many drawings in this thesis were all made with Sketchpad.
A Sketchpad user sketches directly on a computer display with a “light pen.” The light pen is used both to position parts of the drawing on the display and to point to them to change them. A set of push buttons controls the changes to be made such as “erase,” or “move.” Except for legends, no written language is used.
The Rapidograph tubular-nib drawing pen, first introduced in 1952, the proto-type of several cylindrical-nib pens used with special free-flowing drawing inks. Various models were developed under the Rotring trademark. Riepe Werke. West Germany.
The Graphos drawing pen, introduced in Germany in I932. The first modern technical pen, it is capable of twelve different line thicknesses. Alternative size nibs with twin blades are clipped to a holder whose black plastic handle contains an ink reservoir and feed. Drawing Instruments 1580-1980, Hambly M, 1988